Challenges in the conventional etching/pickling process
When it comes to safe, sustainable, and cost-effective operations, there are several challenges associated with the conventional etching/pickling process:
- Environmental challenges are caused by hazardous waste such as spent acid solutions, metal-containing sludges, and neutralizing agents.
- Crystallization challenges in the etching/pickling bath because of copper concentration build-up. It leads to a reduced value of copper and labor-intensive cleanup.
- The high cost associated with the disposal of hazardous waste requires additional management and labor.